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Diabetes Mellitus

About 6% of the South African population – about 3.5million people – suffer from diabetes, and 5 million more are estimated to have pre-diabetes – when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered as diabetes. Most cases of pre-diabetes in South Africa are undiagnosed.

Pituitary Disease

Pituitary disorders are conditions caused by too much or too little of one or more of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is the orchestrator of several hormones which acts in different organs in the body. It is located at the base of the brain. A pituitary tumor compressing surrounding tissues can also cause symptoms of a pituitary disorder.

Adrenal Disease

The adrenal gland is a triangular gland situated at the top of the kidneys. It makes several important hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones and adrenaline to name a few. Imbalances in these hormones can have devastating effects.


Thyroid hormone is essential for the function of the entire body. The thyroid gland may become overactive and in most cases this is due to an autoimmune disease, Graves’ disease, which stimulates the thyroid to make more thyroid hormone. Low thyroid hormone is extremely common and happens due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.


The balance of calcium in the body is of paramount importance. The parathyroid glands are situated behing the thyroid gland in the neck and maintains a normal calcium concentration. In disease these glands may be effected and cause major problems including osteoporosis.


Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both. As a result, bones become weak and may break from a fall or, in serious cases, from sneezing or minor bumps. Osteoporosis means “porous bone.” Viewed under a microscope, healthy bone looks like a honeycomb.

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